Exploring Ancient World Cultures
Readings from the Ancient Near East
The Selections of Zadspram
Ervad Zadspram / Translated by W. E. West
This text is a ninth century Pahlavi compilation of excerpts from the Avesta and Zand that reflects basic elements of the Zoroastrian faith. It contains both orthodox and heterodox doctrines. Readers may be helped by a glossary of Zoroastrian terms provided to the internet by Joseph Peterson.
Chapter 1: The original state of the two spirits
They call these memoranda and writings the Selections (cidakiha) of Zadspram, son of Yudan-Yim.
0. In propitiation of the creator Ohrmazd and all the angels -- who are the whole of the heavenly and earthly sacred beings (yazdan) -- are the sayings of Ervad Zadspram, son of Yudan-Yim, who is of the South, about the meeting of the beneficent spirit and the evil spirit.
1. It is in scripture thus declared, that light was above and darkness below, and between those two was open space. 2. Ohrmazd was in the light, and Ahriman in the darkness; Ohrmazd was aware of the existence of Ahriman and of his coming for strife; Ahriman was not aware of the existence of light and of Ohrmazd. 3. It happened to Ahriman, in the gloom and darkness, that he was walking humbly (fro-tanu) on the borders, and meditating other things he came up to the top, and a ray of light was seen by him; and because of its antagonistic nature to him he strove that he might reach it, so that it might also be within his absolute power. 4. And as he came forth to the boundary, accompanied by certain others, Ohrmazd came forth to the struggle for keeping Ahriman away from His territory; and He did it through pure words, confounding witchcraft, and cast him back to the gloom.
5. For protection from the fiend (druj) the spirits rushed in, the spirits of the sky, water, earth, plants, animals, mankind, and fire He had appointed, and they maintained it (the protection) three thousand years. 6. Ahriman, also, ever collected means in the gloom; and at the end of the three thousand years he came back to the boundary, blustered (patistad), and exclaimed thus: 'I will smite thee, I will smite the creatures which thou thinkest have produced fame for thee -- thee who art the beneficent spirit I will destroy everything about them.'
7. Ohrmazd answered thus: 'Thou art not a doer of everything, O fiend!'
8. And, again, Ahriman retorted thus: 'I will seduce all material life into disaffection to thee and affection to myself.'
9. Ohrmazd perceived, through the spirit of wisdom, thus: 'Even the blustering of Ahriman is capable of performance, if I do not allow disunion (la barininam) during a period of struggle.' 10. And he demanded of him a period for friendship, for it was seen by him that Ahriman does not rely upon the intervention of any vigorous ones, and the existence of a period is obtaining the benefit of the mutual friendship and just arrangement of both; and he formed it into three periods, each period being three millenniums. 11. Ahriman relied upon it, and Ohrmazd perceived that, though it is not possible to have Ahriman sent down, ever when he wants he goes back to his own requisite, which is darkness; and from the poison which is much diffused endless strife arises.
12. And after the period was appointed by him, he brought forward the Ahunwar formula; and in his Ahunwar these kinds of benefit were shown: -- 13. The first is that, of all things, that is proper which is something declared as the will of Ohrmazd; so that, whereas that is proper which is declared the will of Ohrmazd, where anything exists which is not within the will of Ohrmazd, it is created injurious from the beginning, a sin of a distinct nature. 14. The second is this. that whoever shall do that which is the will of Ohrmazd, his reward and recompense are his own; and of him who shall not do that which is the will of Ohrmazd, the punishment at the bridge owing thereto is his own; which is shown from this formula; and the reward of doers of good works, the punishment of sinners, and the tales of heaven and hell are from it. 15. Thirdly, it is shown that the sovereignty of Ohrmazd increases that which is for the poor, and adversity is removed; by which it is shown that there are treasures for the needy one, and treasures are to be his friends; as the intelligent creations are to the unintelligent, so also are the treasures of a wealthy person to a needy one, treasures liberally given which are his own. 16. And the creatures of the trained hand of Ohrmazd are contending and angry (ardik), one with the other, as the renovation of the universe must occur through these three things. 17. That is, first, true religiousness in oneself, and reliance upon a man's original hold on the truly glad tidings (nav-barham), that Ohrmazd is all goodness without vileness, and his will is a will altogether excellent; and Ahriman is all vileness without goodness. 18. Secondly, hope of the reward and recompense of good works, serious fear of the bridge and the punishment of crime, strenuous perseverance in good works, and abstaining from sin. 19. Thirdly, the existence of the mutual assistance of the creatures, or along with and owing to mutual assistance, their collective warfare; it is the triumph of warfare over the enemy which is one's own renovation.
20. By this formula he (Ahriman) was confounded, and he fell back to the gloom; and Ohrmazd produced the creatures bodily for the world first, the sky; the second, water; the third, earth the fourth, plants; the fifth, animals; the sixth, mankind. 21. Fire was in all, diffused originally through the six substances, of which it was as much the confiner of each single substance in which it was established, it is said, as an eyelid when they lay one down upon the other.
22. Three thousand years the creatures were possessed of bodies and not walking on their navels; and the sun, moon, and stars stood still. 23. In the mischievous incursion, at the end of the period, Ohrmazd observed thus: 'What advantage is there from the creation of a creature, although thirstless, which is unmoving or mischievous?' 24. And in aid of the celestial sphere he produced the creature Time (zurvan); and Time is unrestricted, so that he made the creatures of Ohrmazd moving, distinct from the motion of Ahriman's creatures, for the shedders of perfume (boi-dadan) were standing one opposite to the other while emitting it. 25. And, observantly of the end, he brought forward to Ahriman a means out of himself, the property of darkness, with which the extreme limits (virunako) of Time were connected by him, an envelope (posto) of the black-pated and ash-colored kind. 26. And in bringing it forward he spoke thus: 'Through their weapons the cooperation of the serpent (azho) dies away, and this which is thine, indeed thy own daughter, dies through religion; and if at the end of nine thousand years, as it is said and written, is a time of upheaval (madam kardano), she is upheaved, not ended.'
27. At the same time Ahriman came from accompanying Time out to the front, out to the star station; the connection of the sky with the star station was open, which showed, since it hung down into empty space, the strong communication of the lights and glooms, the place of strife in which is the pursuit of both. 28. And having darkness with himself he brought it into the sky, and left the sky so to gloom that the internal deficiency in the sky extends as much as one-third over the star station.
Chapter 2: Ahriman assaults the good creation
1. On the coming in of Ahriman to the creatures it is thus declared in revelation, that in the month Frawardin and the day Ohrmazd, at noon, he came forth to the frontier of the sky. 2. The sky sees him and, on account of his nature, fears as much as a sheep trembles at a wolf; and Ahriman came on, scorching and burning into it. 3. Then he came to the water which was arranged below the earth, and darkness without an eyelid was brought on by him; and he came on, through the middle of the earth, as a snake all-leaping comes on out of a hole; and he stayed within the whole earth. 4. The passage where he came on is his own, the way to hell, through which the demons make the wicked run.
5. Afterwards, he came to a tree, such as was of a single root, the height of which was several feet, and it was without branches and without bark, juicy and sweet; and to keep the strength of all kinds of trees in its race, it was in the vicinity of the middle of the earth; and at the self-same time it became quite withered.
6. Afterwards, he came to the ox, the sole-created, as it stood as high as Gayomard on the bank of the water of Daitya in the middle of the earth; and its distance from Gayomard being as much as its own height, it was also distant from the bank of the water of Daitya by the same measure; and it was a female, white and brilliant as the moon. 7. As the adversary came upon it Ohrmazd gave it a narcotic, which is also called 'bang,' to eat, and to rub the 'bang' before the eye, so that the annoyance from the assault of crimes may be less; it became lean and ill, and fell upon its right breast trembling.
8. Before the advance to Gayomard, who was then about one-third the height of Zartosht, and was brilliant as the sun, Ohrmazd forms, from the sweat on the man, a figure of fifteen years, radiant and tall, and sends it on to Gayomard; and he also brings his sweat on to him as long as one Ahunwar is being recited. 9. When he issued from the sweat, and raised his eyes, he saw the world when it was dark as night; on the whole earth were the snake, the scorpion, the lizard (vazak), and noxious creatures of many kinds; and so the other kinds of quadrupeds stood among the reptiles; every approach of the whole earth was as though not as much as a needle's point remained, in which there was no rush of noxious creatures. 10. there were the coming of a planetary star into planetary conjunction, and the moon and planets at sixes and sevens; many dark forms with the face and curls of Azi Dahak [Zohak] suffered punishment in company with certain non-Iranians; and he was amazed at calling the wicked out from the righteous.
11. Lastly, he (Ahriman) came up to the fire, and mingled darkness and smoke with it.
Chapter 3: The soul of the primeval ox cries to Ohrmazd
1. And Goshorun, as she was herself the soul of the primeval ox, when the ox passed away, came out from the ox, even as the soul from the body of the dead, and kept up the clamor of a cry to Ohrmazd in such fashion as that of an army, a thousand strong, when they cry out together. 2. And Ohrmazd, in order to be much more able to keep watch over the mingled creatures than in front of Gayomard, went from the earth up to the sky. 3. And Goshorun continually went after him crying, and she kept up the cry thus: 'With whom may the guardianship over the creatures be left by thee?'
Chapter 4: The reason why he was unable to destroy the primeval man for thirty years
1. This was the highest predominance of Ahriman, for he came on, with all the strength which he had, for the disfigurement of the creatures; and he took as much as one-third of the base of the sky, in a downward direction, into a confined and captive state, so that it was all dark and apart from the light, for it was itself, at the coming of the adversary, his enemy among the struggles for creation. 2. And this is opposing the renovation of the universe, for the greatest of all the other means of the fiend, when he has come in, are of like origin and strength this day, in the sleep of the renovation, as on that when the enemy, who is fettered on coming in, is kept back.
3. Amid all this struggling were mingled the instigations of Ahriman, crying thus: 'My victory has come completely, for the sky is split and disfigured by me with gloom and darkness, and taken by me as a stronghold; water is disfigured by me, and the earth, injured by darkness, is pierced by me; vegetation is withered by me, the ox is put to death by me, Gayomard is made ill by me, and opposed to those revolving are the glooms and planets arranged by me; no one has remained for me to take and pervert in combat except Ohrmazd, and of the earth there is only one man, who is alone, what is he able to do?'
4. And he sends Astwihad upon him with the thousand decrepitudes (auzvarano) and diseases which are his own, sicknesses of various kinds, so that they may make him ill and cause death. 5. Gayomard was not secured by them, and the reason was because it was a decree of appointing Time (zurvan) in the beginning of the coming in of Ahriman, that: 'Up to thirty winters I appoint Gayomard unto brilliance and preservation of life.' 6. And his manifestation in the celestial sphere was through the forgiveness of criminals and instigators of confusion by his good works, and for that reason no opportunity was obtained by them during the extent of thirty years.
7. For in the beginning it was so appointed that the star Jupiter (Ohrmazd) was life towards the creatures, not through its own nature, but on account of its being within the control (band) of the luminaries; and Saturn (Kevan) was death towards the creatures. 8. Both were in their supremacy (balist) at the beginning of the creatures, as Jupiter was in Cancer on rising, that which is also called Jivan ('living'), for it is the place in which life is bestowed upon it; and Saturn was in Libra, in the great subterranean, so that its own venom and deadliness became more evident and more dominant thereby. 9. And it was when both shall not be supreme that Gayomard was to complete his own life, which is the thirty years Saturn came not again to supremacy, that is, to Libra. 10. And at the time when Saturn came into Libra, Jupiter was in Capricorn, on account of whose own lowness, and the victory of Saturn over Jupiter, Gayomard suffered through those very defects which carne and are to continue advancing, the continuance of that disfigurement which Ahriman can bring upon the creatures of Ohrmazd.
Chapter 5: The first battle, that of the sky with Ahriman
1. When in like manner, and equally oppressively, as his (Ohrmazd's) creatures were disfigured, then through that same deterioration his own great glory was exhibited; for as he came within the sky he maintains the spirit of the sky, like an intrepid warrior who has put on metal armor; and the sky in its fortress spoke these hasty, deceitful words to Ahriman, thus: 'Now when thou shalt have come in I will not let thee back;' and it obstructed him until Ohrmazd prepared another rampart, that is stronger, around the sky, which is called 'righteous understanding' (ashok akasih). 2. And he arranged the guardian spirits of the righteous who are warriors around that rampart, mounted on horses and spear in hand, in such manner as the hair on the head; and they acquired the appearance of prison guards who watch a prison from outside, and would not surrender the outer boundaries to an enemy descended from the inside.
3. Immediately, Ahriman endeavors that he may go back to his own complete darkness, but he found no passage; and he recapitulated, with seeming misgiving, his fears of the worthiness which is to arise at the appearance of the renovation of the universe at the end of the nine thousand years.
4. As it is said in the Gathas, thus: 'So also both those spirits have approached together unto that which was the first creation -- that is, both spirits have come to the body of Gayomard. Whatever is in life is so through this purpose of Ohrmazd, that is: So that I may keep it alive; whatever is in lifelessness is so through this purpose of the evil spirit, that is: So that I may utterly destroy it; and whatever is thus, is so until the last in the world, so that they (both spirits) come also on to the rest of mankind. And on account of the utter depravity of the wicked their destruction is fully seen, and so is the perfect meditation of him who is righteous, the hope of the eternity of Ohrmazd.'
5. And this was the first contest, that of the sky with Ahriman.
Chapter 6: The second battle, that of the water
1. And as he (Ahriman) came secondly to the water, together with him rushed in, on the horse Cancer, he who is the most watery Tishtar; the equally watery one, that is called Avrak, gave forth a cloud and went down in the day; that is declared as the movement of the first-comers of the creatures. 2. Cancer became a zodiacal constellation (akhtar); it is the fourth constellation of the zodiac for this reason, because the month Tishtar is the fourth month of the year.
3. And as Tishtar begged for assistance, Vohuman and Haoma are therefore cooperating with him in command, Burj of the waters and the water in mutual aid, and the righteous guardian spirits in keeping the peace. 4. He was converted into three forms, which are the form of a man, the form of a bull, and the form of a horse; and each form was distinguished in brilliance for ten nights, and lets its rain fall on the night for the destruction of noxious creatures. 5. The drops became each separately like a great bowl in which water is drawn, and as to that on which they are driven, they kill all the noxious creatures except the reptiles, who entered into the muddiness of the earth.
6. Afterwards, the wind spirit, in the form of a man, became manifest on the earth; radiant and tall he had a kind of wooden boot (mukvo-ae-i darino) on his feet; and as when the life shall stir the body, the body is advancing with like vigor, so that spirit of the wind stirs forth the inner nature of the atmospheric wind, the wind pertaining to the whole earth is forth, and the water in its grasp is flung out from it to the sides of the earth, and its wide-formed ocean arose therefrom.
7. It (the ocean) keeps one-third of this earth, and among its contents are a thousand sources and fountains, such as are called lakes (var); a thousand water-fountains, whose water is from the ocean, come up from the lakes and are poured forth into it. 8. And the size of some of all the lakes and all the fountains of water is as much as a fast rider on an Arab horse, who continually compasses and canters around them, will attain in forty days, which is 1900 long leagues (parasang-i akarik), each league being at least 20,000 feet.
9. And after the noxious creatures died, and the poison therefrom was mixed up in the earth, in order to utterly destroy that poison Tishtar went down into the ocean; and Apaosh, the demon, hastened to meet him, and at the alarm of the first contest Tishtar was in terror (pard). 10. And he applied unto Ohrmazd, who brought such power unto Tishtar as arises through propitiation and praise and invoking by name, and they call forth such power unto Tishtar as that of ten vigorous horses, ten vigorous camels, ten vigorous bulls, ten mountains when hurled, and ten single-stream rivers when together. 11. And without alarm he drove out Apaosh, the demon, and kept him away from the sources of the ocean.
12. And with a cup and measuring bowl, which possessed the diligence even of a guardian spirit (farohar), he seized many more handfuls of water, and made it rain down much more prodigiously, for destruction, drops as large as men's heads and bulls' heads, great and small. 13. And in that cloud and rain were the chastisement and beating which Tishtar and the fire Vazisht inflicted on the opposition of Apaosh; the all-deciding (vispo-vicir) fire Vazisht struck down with a club of fire, all-deciding among the malevolent (kebarano).
14. Ten days and nights there was rain, and its darting was the shooting of the noxious creatures; afterwards, the wind drove it to the shore of the wide-formed ocean, and it is portioned out into three, and three seas arose from it; they are called the Puitik, the Kamirid, and the Gehan-bun. 15. Of these the Puitik itself is salt water, in which is a flow and ebb; and the control of its flow and ebb is connected with the moon, and by its continual rotation, in coming up and going down, that of the moon is manifested. 16, The wide-formed ocean stands forth on the south side as to (pavan) Alburz, and the Puitik stands contiguous to it, and amidst it is the gulf (var) of Sataves, whose connection is with Sataves, which is the southern quarter. 17. In the activity of the sea, and in the increase and decrease of the moon, whose circuit is the whole of Iran, are the flow and ebb; of the curving tails in front of the moon two issue forth, and have an abode in Sataves; one is the updrag and one the down-drag; through the up-drag occurs the flood, and through the down-drag occurs the ebb. 18. And Sataves itself is a gulf (var) and side arm of the wide-formed ocean, for it drives back the impurity and turbidness which come from the salt sea, when they are continually going into the wide-formed ocean, with a mighty high wind, while that which is clear through impurity goes into the Aredvisur sources of the wide-formed ocean. 19. Besides these four there are the small seas.
20. And, afterwards, there were made to flow from Alburz, out of its northern border, two rivers, which were the Arvand -- that is, the. Diglat, and the flow of that river was to those of the setting sun (val frod-yehevundano) -- and the Veh was the river of the first-comers to the sun; formed as two horns they went on to the ocean. 21. After them eighteen great rivers came out from the same Alburz; and these twenty rivers, whose source is in Alburz go down into the earth, and arrive in Xwaniratha.
22. Afterwards, two fountains of the sea are opened out for the earth, which are called the Chechast -- lake which has no cold wind, and on whose shore rests the triumphant fire [Adar] Gushnasp -- and, secondly, the Sovar which casts on its shores all turbidness, and keeps its own salt lake clear and pure, for it is like the semblance of an eye which casts out to its edges every ache and every impurity; and on account of its depth it is not reached to the bottom, for it goes into the ocean; and in its vicinity rests the beneficial fire [Adar] Burzin-Mihr.
23. And this was the second contest, which was with the water.
Chapter 7: The third battle, that of the earth
1. And as he (Ahriman) came thirdly to the earth which arrayed the whole earth against him -- since there was an animation of the earth through the shattering -- Alburz grew up, which is the boundary of the earth, and the other mountains, which are amid the circuit of the earth, come up 2244 in number. 2. And by them the earth was bound together and arranged, and on them was the sprouting and growth of plants, wherefrom was the nourishment of cattle, and therefrom was the great advantage of assistance to men.
3. Even so it is declared that before the coming of the destroyer to the creatures, for a thousand years the substance of mountains was created in the earth especially as antagonism came on the earth, and settled on it with injury -- and it came up over the earth just like a tree whose branch has grown at the top, and its root at the bottom. 4. The root of the mountains is passed on from one to the other, and is arranged in connection with them, and through it is produced the path and passage of water from below to above, so that the water may flow in it in such manner as blood in the veins, from all parts of the body to the heart, the latent vigor which they possess. 5. And, moreover, in six hundred years, at first, all the mountains apart from Alburz were completed. 6. Alburz was growing during eight hundred years; in two hundred years it grew up to the star station, in two hundred years up to the moon station, two hundred years up to the sun station, and two hundred years up to the sky. 7. After Alburz the Aparsen mountain is the greatest, as it is also called the Avar-royishn ('up-growth') mountain, whose beginning is in Sagastan and its end unto Pars and to Cinistan.
8. This, too, is declared, that after the great rain in the beginning of the creation, and the wind's sweeping away the water to the ocean, the earth is in seven portions a little above it, as the compact earth, after the rain, is torn up by the noise and wind in various places. 9. One portion, moreover, as much as one-half the whole earth, is in the middle, and in each of the six portions around is as much as Sagastan; moreover, as much as Sagastan is the measure of what is called a karshwar ('region') for the reason that one was defined from the other by a kesh ('furrow'). 10. The middle one is Xwaniratha, of which Pars is the center, and those six regions are like a coronet (avisar) around it. 11. One part of the wide-formed ocean wound around it, among those six regions; the sea and forest seized upon the south side, and a lofty mountain grew up on the north, so that they might become separate, one from the other, and imperceptible.
12. This is the third contest, about the earth.
Chapter 8: The fourth battle, that of the plants
1. As he (Ahriman) came fourthly to the plants -- which have struggled (kukhshi-aito) against him with the whole vegetation -- because the vegetation was quite dry, Amurdad, by whom the essence of the world's vegetation was seized upon, pounded it up small, and mixed it up with the rain-water of Tishtar. 2. After the rain the whole earth is discerned sprouting, and ten thousand special species and a hundred thousand additional species (levatman sardako) so grew as if there were a species of every kind; and those ten thousand species are provided for keeping away the ten thousand diseases.
3. Afterwards, the seed was taken up from those hundred thousand species of plants, and from the collection of seed the tree of all germs, amid the wide-formed ocean, was produced, from which all species of plants continually grow. 4. And the griffin bird (simurgh) has his resting-place upon it; when he wanders forth from within it, he scatters the dry seed into the water, and it is rained back to the earth with the rain.
5. And in its vicinity the tree was produced which is the white Haoma, the counteractor of decrepitude, the reviver of the dead, and the immortalizer of the living.
6. This was the fourth contest, about the plants.
Chapter 9: The fifth battle, that of the animals
1. As he (Ahriman) came fifthly to cattle -- which struggled against him with all the animals and likewise as the primeval ox passed away, from the nature of the vegetable principle it possessed, fifty-five species of grain and twelve species of medicinal plants grew from its various members; and forasmuch as they should see from which member each one proceeds, it is declared in the Damdad Nask. 2. And every plant grown from a member promotes that member, as it is said that there where the ox scattered its marrow on to the earth, grain afterwards grew up, corn and sesame, vetches and peas; so sesame, on account of its marrow quality, is itself a great thing for developing marrow. 3. And it is also said that from the blood is the vine, a great vegetable thing -- as wine itself is blood -- for more befriending the sound quality of the blood. 4. And it is said that from the nose is the pulse (maysh or masah) which is called donak, and was a variety of sesame (shamaga), and it is for other noses. 5. And it is also said that from the lungs are the rue-like herbs which heal, and are for the lung-disease of cattle. 6. This, rooted amid the heart, is thyme, from which is Vohuman's thorough withstanding of the stench of Akoman, and it is for that which proceeds from the sick and yawners.
7. Afterwards, the brilliance of the seed, seized upon, by strength, from the seed which was the ox's, they would carry off from it, and the brilliance was entrusted to the angel of the moon; in a place therein that seed was thoroughly purified by the light of the moon, and was restored in its many qualities, and made fully infused with life (janvar-homand). 8. Forth from there it produced for Eranvej, first, two oxen, a pair, male and female, and, afterwards, other species, until the completion of the 282 species; and they were discernible as far as two long leagues on the earth. 9. Quadrupeds walked forth on the land, fish swam in the water, and birds flew in the atmosphere; in every two, at the time good eating is enjoyed, a longing (av-dahan) arose therefrom, and pregnancy and birth.
10. Secondly, their subdivision is thus: -- First, they are divided into three, that is, quadrupeds walking on the earth, fish swimming in the water, and birds flying in the atmosphere. 11. Then, into five classes, that is, the quadruped which is round-hoofed, the double-hoofed, the five-clawed, the bird. and the fish, whose dwellings are in five places, and which are called aquatic, burrowing, oviparous, wide-traveling, and suitable for grazing. 12. The aquatic are fish and every beast of burden, cattle, wild beast, dog, and bird which enters the water; the burrowing are the marten (samur) and musk animal, and all other dwellers and movers in holes; the oviparous are birds of every kind; the wide-traveling sprang away for help, and are also those of a like kind; those suitable for grazing are whatever are kept grazing in a flock.
13. And, afterwards, they were divided into genera, as the round-hoofed are one, which is all called 'horse;' the double-hoofed are many, as the camel and ox, the sheep and goat, and others double-hoofed; the five-clawed are the dog, hare, musk animals, marten, and others; then are the birds, and then the fish. 14. And then they were divided into species 2, as eight species of horse, two species of camel, ten species of ox, five species of sheep, five species of goat, ten of the dog, five of the hare, eight of the marten, eight of the musk animals, 110 of the birds, and ten of the fish; some are counted for the pigs, and with all those declared and all those undeclared there were, at first, 282 species; and with the species within species there were a thousand varieties.
15. The birds are distributed into eight groups (ristako), and from that which is largest to that which is smallest they are so spread about as when a man, who is sowing grain, first scatters abroad that of heavy weight, then that which is middling, and afterwards that which is small.
16. And of the whole of the species, as enumerated a second time in the Damdad Nask, and written by me in the manuscript (nipik) of 'the summary enumeration of races' -- this is a lordly summary -- the matter which is shown is, about the species of horses, the first is the Arab, and the chief of them is white and yellow-eared, and secondly the Persian, the mule, the ass, the wild ass, the water-horse, and others. 17. Of the camel there are specially two, that for the plain, and the mountain one which is double-humped. 18. Among the species of ox are the white, mud-colored, red, yellow, black, and dappled, the elk, the buffalo, the camel-leopard, the ox-fish, and others. 19. Among sheep are those having tails and those which are tailless, also the wether and the Kurishk which, because of its trampling the hills, its great horn, and also being suitable for ambling, became the steed of Manuschihar. 20. Among goats are the ass-goat, the Arab, the fawn (variko), the roe, and the mountain goat. 21. Among martens are the white ermine, the black marten, the squirrel, the beaver (khaz), and others. 22. Of musk animals with a bag, one is the Bish-musk -- which eats the Bish poison and does not die through it, and it is created for the great advantage that it should eat the Bish, and less of it should succeed in poisoning the creatures -- and one is a musk animal of a black color which they desired (ayufto) who were bitten by the fanged serpent -- as the serpent of the mountain water-courses (mako) is called -- which is numerous on the river-banks; one throws the same unto it for food, which it eats, and then the serpent enters its body, when his serpent, at the time this happens, feeds upon the same belly in which the serpent is, and he will become clear from that malady. 23. Among birds two were produced of a different character from the rest, and those are the griffin bird and the bat, which have teeth in the mouth, and suckle their young with animal milk from the teat.
24. This is the fifth contest, as to animals.
Chapter 10: The sixth battle, that of mankind
1. As he (Ahriman) came sixthly to Gayomard there was arrayed against him, with Gayomard, the pure propitious liturgy (Mahraspand), as heard from Gayomard; and Ohrmazd, in pure meditation, considered that which is good and righteousness as destruction of the fiend (druj). 2. And when he (Gayomard) passed away eight kinds of mineral of a metallic character arose from his various members; they are gold, silver, iron, brass, tin, lead, quicksilver (avginako), and adamant; and on account of the perfection of gold it is produced from the life and seed.
3. Spandarmad received the gold of the dead Gayomard, and it was forty years in the earth. 4. At the end of the forty years, in the manner of a Rivas-plant, Mashye and Mashyane came up, and, one joined to the other, were of like stature and mutually adapted; and its middle, on which a glory came, through their like stature, was such that it was not clear which is the male and which the female, and which is the one with the glory which Ohrmazd created. 5. This is that glory for which man is, indeed, created, as it is thus said in revelation: 'Which existed before, the glory or the body?' And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'The glory was created by me before; afterwards, for him who is created. the glory is given a body so that it may produce activity, and its body is created only for activity.' 6. And, afterwards, they changed from the shape of a plant into the shape of man, and the glory went spiritually into them.
Chapter 11: The seventh battle, that of fire
1. As he (Ahriman) came seventhly to fire, which was all together against him, the fire separated into five kinds, which are called the Propitious, the Good diffuser, the Aurvizisht, the Vazisht, and the Supremely-benefiting. 2. And it produced the Propitious fire itself in heaven (garothman); its manifestation is in the fire which is burning on the earth, and its propitiousness is this, that all the kinds are of its nature. 3. The Good diffuser is that which is in men and animals, and its business consists in the digestion of the food, the sleeping of the body, and the brightening of the eyes. 4. The Aurvazisht is that which is in plants, in whose seed it is formed, and its business consists in piercing the earth, warming the chilled water and producing the qualities and fragrance of plants and blossoms therefrom, and elaborating the ripened produce into many fruits. 5. And the Vazisht is that which has its motion in a cloud, and its business consists in destroying the atmospheric gloom and darkness, and making the thickness of the atmosphere fine and propitious in quality, sifting the hail, moderately warming the water which the cloud holds, and making sultry weather showery. 6. The Supremely-benefiting, like the sky, is that glory whose lodgment is in the Warharan fire, as the master of the house is over the house, and whose propitious power arises from the growing brightness of the fire, the blazing forth in the purity of the place, the praise of God (yazdano), and the practice of good works. 7. And its business is that it struggles with the spiritual fiend, it watches the forms of the witches -- who walk up from the river, wear woven clothing, disturb the luminaries by the concealment of stench, and by witchcraft injure the creatures -- and the occurrences of destruction, burning, and celebration of witchcraft, especially at night; being an assistant of Srosh the righteous.
8. And in the beginning of the creation the whole earth was delivered over into the guardianship of the sublime Farnbag fire, the mighty [Adar] Gushnasp fire, and the beneficial Burzin-Mihr fire, which are like priest, warrior, and husbandman. 9. The place of the fire Farnbag was formed on the Gadman-homand ('glorious') mountain in Khvarizem, the fire [Adar] Gushnasp was on the Asnavand mountain in Ataro-patakan, and the fire Burzin-Mihr on the Revand mountain which is in the Ridge of Vishtasp, and its material manifestation in the world was the most complete.
10. In the reign of Hooshang, when men were continually going forth to the other regions (karshwar) on the ox Sruvo, one night, half-way, while admiring the fires, the fire-stands which were prepared in three places on the back of the ox, and in which the fire was, fell into the sea, and the substance of that one great fire which was manifest, is divided into three, and they established it on the three fire-stands, and it became itself three glories whose lodgments are in the Farnbag fire, the [Adar] Gushnasp fire, and the Burzin-Mihr.
Chapter 12: Two old legends of Spandarmad and of the hero Srito
1. About the coming of the religion at a given time being a resemblance such-like as the birth of a child through two united powers, which are the reception of semen by females in procreation, and delivering it back to the fathers, and a period of struggling and intermingling, especially by two means: a monarchy with religion of the same tenets (ham-vac-denoih), and the existence of similar tenets to those of the monarchy in the custom of the religion. 2. The religion of the Mazda-worshippers, when the period of material organization is being converted again into a spiritual nature, became manifest on the earth, first through Spandarmad and afterwards through Ohrmazd, like the reception of a child by mothers and delivering it back to the fathers.
3. The manifestation of the religion through Spandarmad was at that time when Frasiyav kept back the water from the country of Iran, and brought the water again; in damsel form she was a speaker for its manifestation, in reply to foreigners, at the house of Manuschihar, the monarch of the country of Iran. 4. She was also dressed, and wore radiant clothing which shone out on all sides for the length of a Hasar, which is a distance, like a Parasang; and, tied on her waist, she wore a golden sacred girdle which was the religion of the Mazda-worshippers itself.
5. As to the belt of the religion, it is that to which are connected the thirty-three fetters upon the thirty-three sins, according to which all sin is divided; so that (ku) the damsels, by whom the tied sacred girdle of Spandarmad was seen, have become impetuous (taftigo) after that for a tied girdle, on account of its seeming beautiful.
6. And this was the motherhood which is supplied through Spandarmad, as a gift, in the year 528 before Zartosht came out to his conference, which is one of their statements from the annals of the religion in a manuscript of the ancients.
7. The name of Zartosht is also cited on the earth at 300 years before his conference. 8. For Iran, at the supplication even of the priests in the land, and for the sake of the pacification of a dispute arisen, Ohrmazd produced a great ox, by whom the boundary of Iran next to Turan was intimated by pawing with his hoofs, and he was kept in a jungle. 9. Whenever contention arose, the boundary was fully made known by that ox, until it was the wish of Kay Us to take, fully covetously, a portion of the land of Turan back into Iran, and he saw that the ox is about to act very ill-naturedly, because it was not besought with forms which were prescribed for it, where a boundary was intimated by it.
10. There were seven brothers, and he who was the seventh was called Srito the Seventh, the largest in body and chief in strength, belonging to those instructed in many subjects for Kay Us, and he was among his princes. 11. Kay Us summoned him into his presence and ordered him thus: 'Go and kill that ox in the jungle!'
12. Srito went, and the ox whom he wished to kill expostulated with him, in human words, thus: 'Do not kill me! for though thou canst kill me, he whose guardian spirit is in the Haoma, the death-dispeller, will also become manifest on the earth, he whose name is Zartosht of the Spitamas, and will proclaim thy bad action in the world. 13. And the distress in thy soul becomes such as is declared in revelation thus: "As it occurs to him, so it does to Vadak, when they mention his iniquity," and thy death becomes the like and, owing to death, it is mixed up with hers (that is, owing even to hers is the death of Srito).'
14. When those words were heard by him, Srito turned back, and went again to Kay Us; also by his manner, and even apart from this, he stated what the ox had spoken with awfulness, and also thus: 'I am more desirous than any one who is in the earth created by righteousness, that you should now order destruction for the ox.'
15. And Kay Us uttered his will, with the conviction of superior wisdom, thus: 'It is not certain whether he whose guardian spirit is in the Haoma, the death-dispeller, is himself, or not; and if he be, and be born, whether he will become manifest, or not;' and he commanded with severity, thus: 'Go and kill it!'
16. And Srito spoke thus: 'It is not that I am without strength to kill, because its reprieval by me was owing to its remonstrance, mentioned to me, that a high-priest is to arise.'
17. So it is declared thus, in another revelation (deno zagai), when the Turanians were backward in heart, Kay Us spoke thus: 'Go out to a certain jungle, in which dwell many chiefs of the witches, and they will cut thee up without any striving of heart.'
18. And Srito went up to the jungle, where many witches saw him, who kept their jaws open, and they spoke about the handsome man thus: 'Slay and do not spare!' 19. And compassion having gone out of his heart, he went back to the other jungle and, with his fist, he broke the back of the ox in three places; and the ox, awfully convulsed (skifto bar-hamako), kept up an outcry.
20. After the slaughter of the ox, owing to its convulsed state which was heard by him, the remembrance of it then became grievous to Srito; and he went back to Kay Us, and informed him how it was, and begged him that he should finish off by slaying him, because his life was not desirable.
21. Kay Us spoke thus: 'Shall I slay thee, for it was not designed by thee?'
22. And Srito spoke thus: 'If thou wilt not slay me, then I shall slay thee.'
23. Again Kay Us spoke thus: 'Do not thou slay me, for I am the monarch of the world.'
24. Srito continued his discontent, until Kay Us ordered him thus: 'Go out to a certain jungle, because a witch in the shape of a dog is in it, and she will slay thee.'
25. Then Srito went out to that jungle, and that witch in the shape of a dog was seen by him; after he smote the witch, she became two; and he constantly smote them till they became a thousand, and the host (girdo) of them slew Srito on the spot.
Chapter 13: Parentage of Zartosht
1. About the glory of Zartosht becoming manifest even before his birth, it is thus declared, that forty-five years before the time when Zartosht came out to his conference, when Freno gave birth to the mother of Zartosht, whom they called Dukdaub, it came down from the endless light, in the manner of fire, and mingled with the fire which was before her; and from the fire it mingled with the mother of Zartosht.
2. For three nights it was manifest, to all passers-by, as a species of fire in the direction of the house, and passers on the road always saw great radiance. 3. Also when she became fifteen years old, the radiance of that glory which was in her, was even such that, on the path she was walking along, its brightness was then shed by her.
4. About the combination of Zartosht, whose guardian spirit is reverenced; that is, his guardian spirit, in the Haoma, and his glory are given the cow's milk, by his father and mother drinking it up, and his spiritual life (ahvo) came into the combination, as was proclaimed by his statements in the manuscript about the Guidance of the Ceremonial.
5. About the backward connection of Zartosht with Ohrmazd, through the two who are Yim [Jamshed], the best of the worldly existences, and Neryosang of the spirits. 6. The enumeration of the lineage of Zartosht is Zartosht, son of Pourushasp, of Purtaraspo, of Aurvadasp, of Haecadaspo, of Chikhshnush, of Paitiraspo, of Arejadarshi*, of Kharedhar*, of Spitaman, of Vaedishto, of Ayazem, of Frish, of Arij*, of Durasrobo, of Manuschihar, of Manus-khurnar, of Manus-khurnak, whom Neryosang the messenger of Ohrmazd brought, and whose mother was Vizag, daughter of Aryag, of Sritak, of Bitak, of Frazushak, of Zushak, of Fraguzag, of Guzag, daughter of Airik, son of Faridoon of the Aspigans to the total of ten Aspigans, of Yim [Jamshed], of the Vivanghas, of the Ayanghas, of the Ananghas, of Hooshang, of Fravak, of Siyamak, of Mashye, of Gayomard.
Chapter 14: Demons try to injure him before and at his birth
1. About the wonderful striving of the fiend for the destruction of Zartosht. 2. When it became near to his birth, the Fever demon, the Pain demon, and the Wind demon of Ahriman, each one with 150 demons, have come out to kill Zartosht, and from his spirit they have gone forth to his mother. 3. And she is hurried from there by Fever, Pain, and Wind; and at the distance of one league (parasang) there was a wizard, Impudent (Storko) by name, who was the most medical of wizards; in hope of practice he stood up from his seat, as she stopped in her progress.
4. A messenger of Ohrmazd uttered a cry thus: 'Do not go to a wizard! for they are not healing (beshazinidar) for thee; but go back to the house, wash thy hands on the morrow with cow's butter held over the fire, also burn (tapo) firewood and incense for thy own self and thy progeny which is in thy womb.' 5. And she acted accordingly and became well; and the cooperators of the demon, and those of equal power, who had not obtained their remedy from her body, are again exposed, and spoke thus: 'On account of the existence of fire from all sides we have not succeeded; it is a help for every one who is her friend more than opponent; therefore it was not for us, because of the power within her.'
6. The same night as she gave birth, Ahriman selected commanders and arrayed his champions (gurd); there are some who are with one thousand demons, and there are some who are with two thousand demons; pursuing and attacking they have contended. 7. The opposing stand of the sacred beings, especially of the glory itself at the family fire, was manifest at that birth; and for its splendor and brightness (padroko), settled opposite a distant place, they have then found no remedy.
8. At last, Ahriman sends Akoman on, and spoke to him thus: 'Thou canst be very spiritual, who canst be most intimate; thou canst go with deceit into the mind of Zartosht, and make him turn his mind to us who are demons.' 9. And Ohrmazd sends Vohuman on against him; Akoman advanced to the front, and had come forward to the door, and wished to go inside.
10. Vohuman schemingly (carakogariha) turned back, and exclaimed to Akoman thus: 'Go inside!' 11. Akoman imagined thus: 'There is nothing to be accomplished by me of what was mentioned to me, for Vohuman has gone back.' 12. And Vohuman went inside, and mingled with the reason (varom) of Zartosht, and Zartosht laughed outright, for Vohuman is a gratifying spirit.
13. Also seven wizards were seated before him, and owing to the light in the dwelling, his having laughed at birth was conveniently seen, which is opposed to the habit of the rest of mankind who cry out at birth and are quite terrified.
14. Also, at the same time of birth, he authoritatively accepted the religion from Ohrmazd, as it is stated in revelation, that he spoke at birth thus: 'As is the will of the spiritual lord (ahvo) mayst thou be who art the officiating priest (zot) (that is, mayst thou be the leader of the creatures).'
15. As Zartosht, on account of his worldly body, spoke with a worldly voice, Ohrmazd spoke in reply to him, on account of the spirits, thus: 'So mayst thou be the priestly authority (rad shae), and so mayst thou be virtuous, owing to whatsoever righteousness occurs; and I confidently proclaim thee righteous (that is, I am thy controller).'
16. Another day, Pourushasp went and inquired of the wizards who kept in front at the place, thus: 'What is the cause when infants cry out at birth, beyond that which occurs when they laugh outright?' 17. And they replied thus: 'Because those who are made to cry have seen mortality as their end, and those having laughed have seen their own righteousness.'
Chapter 15: Five Karb brothers opposed to Zartosht and his four brothers
1. About the brothers who were a band of opponents of Zartosht. 2. The Karbs and Ausikhshes were brothers' sons, and have become the devastation (gastaragih) of the Iranians; the devastators of the Iranians (Eranan) were from Kokhared, and Kokhared was born from Eshm and Manushak, the sister of Manuschihar. At the place where Zartosht was born, five brothers have been, whose names were Brad-rukhsh, Brad-royishn, Brad-resh the Tur, Hazan, and Vadast. 4. Their brotherhood of five -- of which the middle one was Brad-resh the Tur, who became more of an adversary of Zartosht -- was a semblance of the brotherhood of five who were sons of Pourushasp, of whom the middle one was Zartosht.
5. Of the four brothers of Zartosht, the names of the two before Zartosht were Ratushtar and Rangushtar, and of the two after him Nodariga and Nivedis. 6. The middle position of Zartosht is for the reason that he is so produced at that time, as an intermedium of the early narrators and the later narrators, that three millenniums came before him and three after. 7. So that he has prescribed to the creatures in what manner he would teach the ancients as to what had occurred, and in what manner it is also to be done as regards what will occur; as is stated in the Gathas thus: 'Both those I ask of thee, O Ohrmazd! even whatever has happened till now, and whatever shall happen henceforth?'
Chapter 16: One Karb tries to kill Zartosht five times
1. About the trials (auzmayishno) which occurred to him whose practice was lawful, and the signs of prophecy that are seen therein, it is thus declared, namely; 'Another day, when the child had been born, Pourushasp called one of those five brothers of the race of Karbs, and spoke thus: "Fully observe the marks and specks of my son Zartosht."'
2. The Karb went and sat down before Zartosht, and the head of Zartosht was thereupon severely twisted by him, in order that he should be killed; but he, being fearless, watched the wizards whose terror was distressing. 3. As it was in those ten nights for hospitality, Ohrmazd sent Spandarmad, Aredvisur, and Ardafrawash down to the earth, by way of female care; thereupon no variation occurred to the child, and, further, the hand of that Karb was withered, and that wizard demanded the life of Zartosht from Pourushasp for the harm from him, which sprang upon himself from his own action.
4. At the same time Pourushasp took Zartosht, and gave him to the Karb, that he might do with him according to his own will. 5. He seized him and threw him out, at the feet of the oxen who were going on a path to the water; the leader of that drove of oxen stood still in his vicinity, and 150 oxen, which walked behind it, were kept away from him thereby; and Pourushasp took him, and carried him back to the house.
6. Also the second day, the Karb threw him out at the feet of the horses; and the leader of the horses stood still in the vicinity of Zartosht, and 150 horses, which walked behind it, were kept away from him thereby; and Pourushasp took him, and carried him back to the house.
7. Also the third day, firewood is gathered together by the Karb, and Zartosht is deposited on it by him, the fire is stirred up by him, yet with the same result (ham-bun-ic), the child is not burnt by it, and those marks, which existed and were made upon him, were a preservation from it.
8. And the fourth day, he is thrown by the Karb into the lair (ashyanako) of a wolf; the wolf was not in the lair, and when it wished to go back to the den (surako), it stopped when it came in front of some radiance, in the manner of a mother, at the place where its cub was. 9. In the night, Vohuman and Srosh the righteous brought a woolly (kurushako) sheep with udder full of milk into the den, and it gave milk to Zartosht, in digestible draughts (guvarako guvarako), until daylight.
10. In the dawn, the mother of Zartosht went to that place, in the expectation that it would be necessary to bring a skeleton out of the den, and the woolly sheep came out and ran away; his mother supposed that it was the wolf, and she spoke thus: 'Thou hast devoured to repletion; mayst thou endure for ever without it!' She went farther, and when she saw Zartosht quite safe, she then took him up and spoke thus: 'I will not give thee to any one during life, not though both the provinces of Ragh and Nodar should arrive here together.'
12. Because these princes were among the spiritual from two provinces which are in Atur-padakan, such as are at sixty leagues (parasang) from Chist; Zartosht arose from Ragh, and Vishtasp from Nodar. 13. And of these two provinces, Ragh was according to the name of Eriko, son of Durasrobo, son of Manuschihar, from whom arose the race of Zartosht; and Nodar was according to the name of Nodar, son of Manuschihar, from whom arose the race of Vishtasp.
Chapter 17: Another foretells his glorious destiny
1. These were his tokens at birth: -- One day, one of those five brothers of the Karbs saw Zartosht, and he looked a long while upwards, downwards, and on all sides around.
2. Pourushasp inquired thus; 'What was there when thou lookedst upwards, what when thou lookedst downwards, and what when thou lookedst on all sides?'
3. And he replied thus, namely: 'When I looked upwards, it was for this reason, when I saw that our souls that go up to the sky, will go up to the best existence, owing to the words of this soul of mankind. 4. When I looked downwards, I saw that, owing to the action of this one, the demon and fiend, the wizard and witch become buried below the earth, and fall paralyzed back to hell. 5. And when I looked on all sides, I saw that the words of this one will extend through the whole earth; and when they have become as the law of the seven regions, each person is kept clothed with a robe (kapah) of seven skins, in which the glory of the seven archangels has arisen.'
6. And Brad-rukhsh the Tur went forth; when he went to the right side (arako), Zartosht hastened away to the left, and when he went to the left side, Zartosht hastened to the right, and he is thereby concealed from Brad-rukhsh the Tur, who has not met with him.
Chapter 18: His father disagrees with him
1. About his diverse want of participation (gvid akhvesih) with his parents this also is declared, that the demons, at an assembly of wizards, produced an outcry for a conference (ham-vaco layishno) thus: 'That son of Pourushasp is senseless and foolish and secretly corrupted; no one, man or woman, will consider or accept him as exalted.'
2. The tidings came to Pourushasp, and Pourushasp spoke unto Zartosht thus: 'I thought that I had begotten a son who would become a priest, a warrior, and a husbandman, and now thou wouldst be foolish and secretly corrupted; thou shouldst proceed to the Karbs, so that they may cure thee.'
3. Zartosht gave answer thus: 'I am he that is thy son, a priest, warrior, and husbandman.' 4. And, by command of Pourushasp he harnessed two horses to a chariot (vardino), and he went with Pourushasp.
5. When they came to the place according to the decision of Pourushasp, into the presence of one Karb of those said five brethren, that wizard took a cup and made water, and spoke thus: 'This he should drink who is a son of thine, so that he may become well;' and he acted with this conviction, that so he would change to the same nature as theirs.
6. Zartosht spoke to Pourushasp thus: 'Thou mayst give it back to him who is thy protector and high-priest;' and he arose (akhejid) and went back to their place.
7. On the way, Zartosht gave their two horses water, on account of their thirst; and he thought thus: 'Unprofitable was my going to the residence of the Karbs, except in this manner, when, through giving water to the horses, my soul was then expanded.'
Chapter 19: And he disagrees with his father and the chief Karb
1. About his interfering talk (andarg-gobishnoih) with the iniquitous, this also is declared, that one day Durasrobo the Karb, as it were from the same five brethren, came out to the house of Pourushasp; and Pourushasp placed a bowl (jamako) of mare's milk before him, and spoke to him thus: 'Consecrate it.'
2. Zartosht expostulated with Pourushasp thus: I will consecrate it.' 3. Pourushasp spoke thus: He should consecrate, and the grace is to be offered up by you;' and as many as three times they mutually disputed.
4. Then up stood Zartosht, and his right foot struck at the bowl and emptied it, and he spoke thus: 'I reverence righteousness, I reverence the righteous and the poor, men and women; do thou, O Pourushasp! prepare a portion for him in whom there is worthiness.'
5. And Durasrobo spoke unto Zartosht thus: 'As some of my portion of daily food was first thrown away by thee, it is I who will bring it on both thy lives, and will utterly destroy thee.' 6. Zartosht spoke interruptingly thus: 'With complete mindfulness I will look upon thee with both eyes, and will utterly destroy thee.'
7. And, for a long time, they constantly looked, one at the other, with unshrinking gaze; but the divine nature of Zartosht is victorious over the witchcraft of that wizard, and Durasrobo is further disturbed; he also asked for his horse and spoke thus: 'On account of this boy, it is impossible for me to stay.'
8. He sat upon the horse, and when he had gone a little way, he fell off from the horse, through severe distress, and died; and the children of his children's children have died upon the same spot.
Chapter 20: Legends indicative of his good disposition
1. About the righteousness of his desires it is thus declared, that when he became fifteen years old, the sons of Pourushasp demanded a portion from their father, and their portions are allotted out by him. 2. Among the clothes there was a girdle, the width of which was four finger-breadths; and of the four portions around and the girdle, which it was possible to bring forth, Zartosht selected the latter and tied it on himself. 3. This was owing to the precepts (parvanakan) of Vohuman who came into his reason at birth; as to whatever is not the custom his mind was now quite closed, and in that which is the custom it was impetuously exercised by him.
4. About his compassionate disposition and the streams of the Arag province, this also is declared, that there was a river, and from them the body of a naked woman floated, for the reason that, on account of the strength and swiftness of the river, a woman, except when she was quite naked while she was in it, was not able to pass; and an old person, such as he who is of seventy years and is called in revelation a Hano, for want of power (apadiyavandih rai), was not able to go back through it by his own strength. 5. Zartosht came on to the bank of the water, and of women and old people seven persons had come, and are passed on by him, in the manner of a bridge; it was an emblem of the spiritual performers of bridging work, that is, of those providing a passage to heaven.
6. About his liberal disposition it is declared, that the fodder of Pourushasp, which was stored for the beasts of burden, was not only for the beasts of Pourushasp in a scarcity, but also for distribution among the beasts of others, which, owing to their hunger on account of the scarcity, then constantly ate off the tails of each other; and it was given to them plentifully.
7. About his abandoning worldly desire, and his laying hold of righteousness of way, this, too, is declared, that when he became twenty years old, without the consent (ben akamakih) of his father and mother, he wandered forth and departed from their house, and openly inquired thus: 'Who is most desirous of righteousness and most nourishing the poor?' 8. And they spoke thus: 'He who is the youngest (kehisto) son of Aurvaito-dih the Tur, who every day gives an iron caldron (jamak), which is the height of a horse, full of bread and milk and other food, unto the poor.' 9. Zartosht went on to that place, and with his cooperation, for the nourishment of the poor, some of the chief men performed duty by carrying forth food for the poor.
10. About his compassion, not only upon mankind, but also his other creatures, this, too, is declared, that a bitch was seen by him, which had given birth to five puppies, and it was three days then that she had not obtained food. 11. Whomever she saw, she then advanced her mouth towards him, and became as it were prostrated; Zartosht provided a remedy, by swiftly bringing up bread for her, but when he was bringing it she had expired.
12. About his own desire for the good quality of a wife, on account also of the will of his parents, and his not mingling his own seed before a suitable obtainment, this, too, is declared, that when his father sought a wife for him, Zartosht argued with the bride (nesha) thus: 'Show me thy face, so that may find out (barkham) its kind of appearance, and this, too, whether its appearance be undesirable, or shall not be gratifying;' and the bride turned away her face from him. 13. And Zartosht spoke thus: 'Whoever takes away a sight from me, does not practice respect for me.'
14. About his having accepted progress even from the iniquitous, that listened sinfully desirous, who accepted so much advantageousness as was manifest, this, too, is declared, that he came into an assembly who were well known in the place for much knowledge, and he inquired of them thus: 'What is most favorable for the soul?' 15. And they spoke thus: 'To nourish the poor, to give fodder to cattle, to bring firewood to the fire, to pour Haoma-juice into water, and to worship many demons with words, with the words which are called revelation (deno).' 16. Then Zartosht nourished the poor, foddered the cattle, brought firewood to the fire, and squeezed Haoma into water, but never are any demons whatever worshipped with words by Zartosht.
Chapter 21: His going to confer with Ohrmazd
1. About his coming to thirty years of age if is thus declared, that on the lapse of thirty years onwards from his appearance, on the day Anagran of the month Spandarmad, he had proceeded in that direction in which there occurred the so-called festival of spring (jashno-i vahar), forty-five days beyond new-year's day, at a place become specially noted, where people went, from many quarters, out to the place of festival (jashnocar).
2. When Zartosht, for the sake of going off to the festival place, halted on the way in walking, he chanced upon a solitary (aevatak) plain, and he saw, in a vision, that mankind and a much-adorned worldly existence were kept away to the north, so that all the people in the earth have become fully manifest in the north. 3. And he at the head (pavan tekh) of them was Maidok-mah, son of Arastai, even as Arastai was brother of Pourushasp; Maidok-mah was the leader of all mankind who have gone out to the presence of Zartosht, and he became their guide, so that first Maidok-mah and afterwards the whole material existence are attracted.
4. And about his coming out to the conference, on the lapse of those forty-five days, at the place of festival at dawn on the day Dadvo-pavan-Mitro [Day-pe-Adar] of the month Ardwahisht. 5. And Zartosht, for the purpose of squeezing the Haoma, went forth to the bank of the water of the Daitya, because it is the river of the conference for the supremacy (patih) of Zartosht, and is the water of Aban which has consisted of four channels (beta). 6. Zartosht also passed on through it; and its first channel was up to the ankle, the second up to the knee, the third up to the parting of the two thighs, and the fourth up to the neck. 7. This was an indicator that his religion comes four times to supremacy; the manifestations of which are through Zartosht, Hoshedar, Hoshedarmah, and Soshyant.
8. When he came up from the water, and put on his clothes, he then saw the archangel Vohuman in the form (ayuinako) of a man, handsome, brilliant, and elegant, who wore his hair curve-tailed, because the curved tail is an indication of duality; who had put on and wore a dress like silk, than which there was no making anything superior, for it was light itself; and his height was nine times as much as of Zartosht.
9. He also inquired of Zartosht thus: 'Who mayst thou be, and from whom of them mayst thou be? also what is mostly thy desire, and the endeavor in thy existence?' 10. And he replied thus: 'I am Zartosht of the Spitamas; among the existences righteousness is more my desire, and my wish is that I may become aware of the will of the sacred beings, and may practice so much righteousness as they exhibit to me in the pure existence.'
11. And Vohuman directed Zartosht thus: 'Do thou proceed to an assembly of the spirits!' 12. As much as Vohuman walked on in nine steps, Zartosht did in ninety steps, and when he had gone ninety steps farther than him, he saw the assembly of the seven archangels. 13. When he came within twenty-four feet of the archangels, he then did not see his own shadow on the ground, on account of the great brilliancy of the archangels; the position of the assembly was in Iran, and in the direction of the districts on the bank of the water of the Daitya. 14. Zartosht offered homage, and spoke thus: 'Homage to Ohrmazd, and homage to the archangels!' and he went forward and sat down in the seat of the inquirers.
15. As to the asking of questions by Zartosht, he inquired of Ohrmazd thus: 'In the embodied world which is the first of the perfect ones, which the second, and which the third?' 16. And Ohrmazd replied thus: 'The first perfection is good thoughts, the second good words, and the third good deeds.'
17. Zartosht also inquired thus: 'Which thing is good, which is better, and which is the best of all habits?' 18. And Ohrmazd replied thus: 'The title of the archangels is good, the sight of them is better, and carrying out their commands is the best of all habits.'
19. Afterwards he demonstrated the duality of the original evolutions (bun gashtano), and the divergence in each control, and spoke thus: 'Of those spirits, he who was wicked preferred the practice which is iniquitous (Ahriman's desire was for the practice which is iniquitous), and the spirit of righteousness, the propitious (Ohrmazd) prefers righteousness.' 20. Specially he demonstrated the divergence in each control of the exhibitors of light, and he spoke thus: 'Neither our thoughts, nor desires, nor words, nor deeds, nor religion, nor spiritual faculties agree; he who is loving light, his place is with the luminaries; and he who is loving darkness is with the dark ones.'
21. On the same day also, his omniscient wisdom appeared three times: as regards the same first questions, it pointed out the sky in great light and splendor, and in its exhibition of the prevention of darkness, at the sight of which it becomes an opposing existence as regards that darkness. 22. And it exhibited its own appearance proportionally to the sky, when it kept its head at the summit of the sky, ifs feet at the bottom of the sky, and its hands reached to both sides of the sky; the sky also kept it covered, in the manner of a garment.
23. The six archangels were manifest by their similar stature (ham-bashnih), in such manner that it is obvious each one successively is apparently one finger's breadth shorter than the other. 24. The archangels exhibited three kinds of achievement (pasakhtan) for the religion; first, by means of fires, and Zartosht walked three steps on them, with the words, 'good thoughts, good words, and good deeds,' and was not burnt; and secondly, hot metal is poured on to his chest, cooled thereby, and, grasping it with his hand, he held it for the archangels. 25. Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'After the establishment of the pure religion, when a dispute occurs in the religion, those who are thy disciples will pour it on to a spiritual lord, they will take it up with the hand, and will thoroughly believe in him who is over the whole embodied existence.' 26. The third was cutting with a knife, and the vital parts (ahvon) becoming visible, which are inside the abdomen. with a flowing forth of blood; and, after the hands are rubbed over it, it became healed. 27. And this is pointed out, namely: 'Thy and thy co-religionists' accepting of the pure religion is, as to the steadfast in other religions, such that, through such-like burning of fire, pouring of hot metal, and through an operation with a sharp instrument, there is no perversion from the good religion.'
Chapter 22: His conferences with the archangels
1. About the seven questionings (7-frashnoih), with reference to religion, of the seven archangels, which occurred in seven places.
2. For the occurrence of the first questioning, that of Ohrmazd, the person of Zartosht, who was the upholder of Ohrmazd, came out to a conference on the bank of the water of Daitya.
3. For the occurrence of the second, which is Vohuman's, five animals out of the five species which are the worldly tokens of Vohuman, have come with Zartosht to a conference on Hugar and Ausind; and on that day also, before their coming out to the conference, their tongues are fully liberated and spoke with human words. 4. And among the rest is a fish of one species, Arzuva by name; of those in burrows (khanoigano) are the white ermine and white marten; of the flying creatures (vayan-dagan) is the Karshipt, a bird like a species of water-fowl; of the wide-travelers (farakhvo-raftarano) is the hare which is showing wild beasts the way to the water; and of those suitable for grazing (carako-arjanigan) is the white ass-goat; with human words they also accepted the religion from Ohrmazd. 5. With the chieftainship of the five species they are entrusted, so that the like animals also, with their own voices, and as much as their knowledge is capable, shall recount the powerfulness of the religion. 6. And freedom from assault, exemption from persecution, and proper maintenance of the five species of animals, were prescribed by him to Zartosht with seemingly very awful admonition.
7. For the occurrence of the third questioning, which is Ardwahisht's, the spirits of the fires have come out with Zartosht to a conference at the Tojan water; and, in that questioning, care for the proper maintenance of the Warharan fire, and the propitiation of all fires, is explained to him.
8. For the occurrence of the fourth questioning, which is Shahrewar's, the spirits of the metals have come with Zartosht to a conference at Sarai, a settlement on the Mivan; and he was fully admonished about various proper preservations of the metals, and as to not producing warlike accouterments of gold.
9. For the occurrence of the fifth questioning, which is Spandarmad's, the spirits of the regions, frontiers, stations (austaman), settlements (rudastakan), and districts, as many as were desirable, have come out with Zartosht to a conference where there is a spring (khanigo-ae) which comes out from the Asnavad mountain, and goes into the Daitya, like those of Sataves who is blowing the Pairigs. 10. And Zartosht was also thus admonished by her, about the care and propitiation of the earth: that each district is to be entrusted to a faithful testifier (gokas-i vavar), each settlement to a judge acquainted with the law, each station to an officiating priest (magopato = mobed) of just intentions, and each frontier to a pure priestly authority (rado); over all is proclaimed the councilor of the spirits, the supreme priest (magopatano magopato), and through him the sovereignty of Ohrmazd is provided.
11. For the occurrence of the sixth questioning, which is Hordad's, the spirits of seas and rivers have come with Zartosht to a conference at the Asnavad mountain, and he was told about the care and propitiation of water.
12. For the occurrence of the seventh questioning, which is Amurdad's, the spirits of plants have come out with Zartosht to a conference on the precipitous bank of the Dareja, on the bank (bar) of the water of Daitya, and different places; and he was informed about the care and propitiation of plants.
13. The seven questionings are explained within the length of these winters, which are of five months, and within ten years.
Chapter 23: Dates of conversions, births, and deaths
1. On the completion of revelation, that is, at the end of the ten years, Maidok-mah, son of Arastai, became faithful to Zartosht.
2. Afterwards, on having obtained his requests, he came back to the conference of Ohrmazd, and he spoke thus: 'In ten years only one man has been attracted by me.' 3. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'There will be days when so few are not attracted by you, who are themselves the occasion of the resurrection of the world; when, apart from Dahak [Zohak], the beneficence of the formation of the renovation of the universe attracts every one besides, and the impenitence of Dahak [Zohak] is destroyed.'
4. When he came out from the presence of Ohrmazd, with the same paradox, he thereby indicated his religion as complete to Spandarmad through his intelligence.
5. In the two years after that, the Kavigs and Karbs of Vishtasp, in the manner of opponents (hamestaranih), propounded thirty-three inquiries (khvastako) to him, so that by command of Vishtasp he became the explainer of those thirty-three inquiries. 6. Of the thirty-three habits of iniquity, come for opposition to the religion of the sacred beings, of the declaration, by revelation, of those thirty-three indications of fetters; and of the restraint of the thirty-three iniquitous practices by the thirty-three best good works, there are statements in revelation. 7. Including the acceptance of the religion by Vishtasp from Zartosht, after the redemonstration of its judicially multiform prophecy and spiritual character, which are looked into through the evidence of three speakers about them, the archangels who, with worldly manifestation, have become apparent unto Vishtasp and his councilors and mighty ones; they are Vohuman, Ardwahisht, and the Burzin-Mihr fire.
8. About the reward which existed before the beneficence of Zartosht, and its being seen how, through guidance by Ohrmazd, it is demonstrated by him to those of the world, so that Maidok-mah is attracted in the tenth year in the forest of reedy hollows (kanyastano veshako) which is the haunt of swine of the wild-boar species (khazura-i varazo gas); in the twentieth year the Kavig who is son of Kundah is attracted; in the thirtieth year the Khyons arrive, who make an incursion (vardako) into the countries of Iran, owing to the Kavigs, those who are more of their own race; and in the fortieth year Vohunem, son of Avaroshtar, is born.
9. In the forty-seventh year Zartosht passes away, who attains seventy-seven years and forty days in the month Ardwahisht, on the day Khur; and for eight rectified (vehicako) months, till the month Dadvo and day Khur, he should be brought forward as to be reverenced.
10. In the same month Ardwahisht, in the sixty-third year, Frashostar passed away, and in the sixty-fourth year Jamasp, the same as became the priest of priests after Zartosht; in the seventy-third year Hangaurush, son of Jamasp; in the eightieth year Asmok-khanvato, and also in the eightieth year Kabed-us-spae, who is called also Akht the wizard, is killed.
11. Of the six great upholders of the religion there are the two daughters of Zartosht, whose names are Freno and Srito, with Aharubo-stoto, son of Maidok-mah, and another three, who are renowned for their religion for a hundred years, who are Vohunem that is born in the fortieth year of the religion, Seno is afterwards born and passes away in the two-hundredth year, and as to his hundred-discipledom, it exists day and night till the three-hundredth year. 12. Afterwards the religion is disturbed and the monarchy is contested (jangiaito).
13. About the three customs (dado) which Zartosht prescribed as the best: -- The first of them is this: 'Do not go without others, except with magisterial authority (apatkar radiha);' the second is: 'Though they shall proceed unlawfully as to you, consider your actions lawfully beforehand;' and the third is: 'Next-of-kin marriage, for the sake of the pure progress of your race, is the best of the actions of the living, which are provided for the proper begetting of children.'
Chapter 24: Five dispositions of priests and ten admonitions
1. About the five dispositions of priests, and the ten admonitions with which all instruction as to religion is connected.
2. Of those five dispositions the first is innocence.
3. The second is discrimination among thoughts, words, and deeds; [to fully distinguish the particulars of destruction from indestructiveness, such as noxious creatures from cattle; and of production from unproductiveness, such as the righteous an worthy from the wicked and unworthy].
4. The third is authoritativeness, because that priestly master is always wiser and speaking more correctly who is taught wisely and teaches with more correct words.
5. The fourth is to [understand and consider the ceremonial as the ceremonial of Ohrmazd, and the essentials with all goodness, beneficence, and authority; to be steadfast in his religion, and to consider the indications of protection (sayag) which are established for his religion. 6. To maintain the reverence of the luminaries prayerfully, also the reverence of the emanations from the six archangels, be they fire, be they earth, or be they of bodily form, and of the creatures which are formed by them; also the pure cleansing from dead matter, menstruation, bodily refuse, and other hurtfulness; this is in order that they may be characterized, and thereby constituted, as better-principled, more sensible, and purer, and they may become less faulty. 7. The reverence of mankind is to consider authoritatively about knowledge and property; the reverence of cattle is about fodder, little hardship, and moderate maintenance; the reverence of plants is about sowing and ripening for the food of the worthy. 8. The ceremonial which is glorifying all the sacred beings, praises the luminaries and worldly creations improperly, and is antagonistic to them, because complete glorification is proper through complete recitation of the ritual; and the ceremonial of any one whatever is his own proper duty professionally, so long as it is possible to keep proceeding with very little sinfulness].
9. The fifth is to struggle prayerfully, day and night, with your own fiend, and all life long not to depart from steadfastness, nor allow your proper duty to go out of your hands.
10. And the first of those ten admonitions is to proceed with good repute, for the sake of occasioning approving remarks as to the good repute of your own guardian and teacher, high-priest and master.
11. The second is to become awfully refraining from evil repute, for the sake of evil repute not occurring to relations and guardians.
12. The third is not to beat your own teacher with a snatched-up stick, and not to bring scandal upon his name, for the sake of annoying him, by uttering that which was not heard from your own teacher.
13. The fourth is that whatever is taught liberally by your own teacher, you have to deliver back to the worthy, for the sake of not extorting a declaration of renown from the righteous.
14. The fifth is that the reward of doers of good works and the punishment of criminals have to be established by law, for the sake of progress.
15. The sixth is to keep the way of the good open to your house, for the sake of making righteousness welcome in your own abode.
16. The seventh is that, for the sake of not developing the fiend insensibly in your reason, you are not to keep it with the religion of the good, nor to remain in impenitence of sin.
17. The eighth is that, for the sake of severing the fiend from the reason, you have to force malice away from your thoughts, and to become quickly repentant of sin.
18. The ninth is to fully understand the forward movement of the religion, also to keep the advancing of the religion further forwards, and to seek your share of duty therein; and on a backward movement, when adversity happens to the religion, to have the religion back again, and to keep your body in the continence (makavadih) of religion.
19. The tenth is that there is to be a period of obedience (Sroshdarih) towards the ruler and priestly authority, the high-priesthood of the religious.
Chapter 25: About the three divisions of revelation
1. About the three divisions of revelation there is a condensed medium, beneficial and small, of whose subdivision one category (rajistako) is collection together; that is, the Ahunwar itself is a symbol of the Nasks.
2. First, the Ahunwar is apportioned into its three degrees (padman), as shown in another chapter; and by a like system (rajistak) the Gathas, too, are into three, which are the three-lined, four-lined, and five-lined; even so the Nasks are denominated Gathic, Hadha-mathric, and Law. 3. Then the Ahunwar is apportioned into six: which they call half-lines (nem-gas); so, too, the Gathas are into six, which are called the Ahunavaiti Gatha, the Yasna, the Ushtavaiti Gatha, the Spenta-Mainyu (Spetamato) Gatha, the Vohu-khshathra Gatha, and the Vahishtoishti Gatha; even so the Nasks are into six, as the Gathas are into two, which are called one the Gathic creation -- which is the Yasht -- and one the rest of the Gathic; also the Hadha-mathric into two, one the Mathra of the arranger -- which is the Pacino and Rado-dado-aito -- and one the Mathra full of good tokens, which is the rest of the Hadha-mathra; and also the Law into two, one the law against the demons -- which is the Vendidad -- and one the law of Zartosht, which is the rest of the Law. 4. Then it is apportioned into twenty-one, such as the twenty-one words (marik) of the Ahunwar; also the Gathas are into twenty-one, which are the Ahunwar, the praise of righteousness, the performance of the good, and from Yanim-mano unto Airyaman which, being accomplished (akardo), are twenty-one; and the Nasks are twenty-one.
5. Then the Gathas are apportioned into 278 stanzas (vecesto); and the Nasks also into 278 categories, every single category having borne a form like a single verse, as regards how much and how anything good is indicated, such as the Patkar-radistan, in which what is legally disputable is reported (pedako); the Zakhmistan, by which the penalty of assault (zakhm) is reported; the Storistan, by which the sin and amount of penalty for a wound, as regard beasts of burden and cattle, are reported; the Arateshtaristan, by which battle is reported; the Pasush-haurastan, by which the customary keeping of sheep in control is reported; the Jurdai-zaritunistan ('corn-sowing code'), by which agriculture is reported; the Varistan, by which an ordeal being accomplished is reported; and others of a like description.
6. Then the Gathas are apportioned into 1016 metrical lines (gas), and the Nasks into 1000 Has and Fargards, and, since the Hadokht is the priestly master (rado) of the Nasks, and the remedy (darmon) which is a perfect statement about the master of the resurrection, the existence of its fargards about the other fargards is therefore 1000 remedies fully combined, being the corn and fodder that are shut up (bastako) when, over that thousand, they supply one that is great, which in every way protects them from hail and rain, from the wind which is hot and that which is cold.
7. Then the Gathas are apportioned into 6666 words (marik), and as to the Nasks, too, their own 6666 ordinances (dadistano) are therein severed. 8. And the 6666 words, which are in the Gathas, are an indicator of the period from the adversary having come to the creatures, as far as unto the end of the six millenniums -- each millennium being ten centuries -- which amount to 60 single centuries -- a century being ten tens -- and up to the time when its cold and distress arrive, which become awful; the 600, including the excess as far as one ten, are years of the 6000 years which are the words of the six Gathas that are the first indicator of the six millenniums; therefore of the 60 centuries are then the 600 and those which are added to them (zak-i ghal).
9. And after those 6000, which are the 6000 years, are the Airyaman of Ardwahisht and the accompanying sayings (ham-vaco) which are at the end of the Gathas; those are the 57 years of Soshyant, and for the sake of them, too, are the Airyaman and from the praise of righteousness at its end to the consecration of the Airyaman, originally 57 words (marik), because the praise of righteousness for the Airyaman is 12, and the consecration of the Airyaman is 21, of the original 57.